2310 19137 Automaton Distillation: Neuro-Symbolic Transfer Learning for Deep Reinforcement Learning
The network produces a query output that is compared (hollow arrows) with a behavioural target. B, Episode b introduces the next word (‘tiptoe’) and the network is asked to use it compositionally (‘tiptoe backwards around a cone’), and so on for many more training episodes. We propose the Neuro-Symbolic Concept Learner (NS-CL), a model that learns visual concepts, words, and semantic parsing of sentences without explicit supervision on any of them; instead, our model learns by simply looking at images and reading paired questions and answers. Our model builds an object-based scene representation and translates sentences into executable, symbolic programs. To bridge the learning of two modules, we use a neuro-symbolic reasoning module that executes these programs on the latent scene representation.
Notably, modern neural networks still struggle on tests of systematicity11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18—tests that even a minimally algebraic mind should pass2. In this Article, we provide evidence that neural networks can achieve human-like systematic generalization through MLC—an optimization procedure that we introduce for encouraging systematicity through a series of few-shot compositional tasks (Fig. 1). Our implementation of MLC uses only common neural networks without added symbolic machinery, and without hand-designed internal representations or inductive biases. Instead, MLC provides a means of specifying the desired behaviour through high-level guidance and/or direct human examples; a neural network is then asked to develop the right learning skills through meta-learning21. An epoch of optimization consisted of 100,000 episode presentations based on the human behavioural data. To produce one episode, one human participant was randomly selected from the open-ended task, and their output responses were divided arbitrarily into study examples (between 0 and 5), with the remaining responses as query examples.
Machine learning can be applied to lots of disciplines, and one of those is NLP, which is used in AI-powered conversational chatbots. Imagine how Turbotax manages to reflect the US tax code – you tell it how much you earned and how many dependents you have and other contingencies, and it computes the tax you owe by law – that’s an expert system. The words sign and symbol derive from Latin and Greek words, respectively, that mean mark or token, as in “take this rose as a token of my esteem.” Both words mean “to stand for something else” or “to represent something else”. A similar problem, called the Qualification Problem, occurs in trying to enumerate the preconditions for an action to succeed. An infinite number of pathological conditions can be imagined, e.g., a banana in a tailpipe could prevent a car from operating correctly.
- In this paper, we propose an end-to-end reinforcement learning architecture comprising a neural back end and a symbolic front end with the potential to overcome each of these shortcomings.
- This creates a crucial turning point for the enterprise, says Analytics Week’s Jelani Harper.
- The use of the spiral curriculum can aid the process of discovery learning.
- YAGO incorporates WordNet as part of its ontology, to align facts extracted from Wikipedia with WordNet synsets.
- And unlike symbolic AI, neural networks have no notion of symbols and hierarchical representation of knowledge.
Note that here the examples used for optimization were generated by the benchmark designers through algebraic rules, and there is therefore no direct imitation of human behavioural data. We experiment with two popular benchmarks, SCAN11 and COGS16, focusing on their systematic lexical generalization tasks that probe the handling of new words and word combinations (as opposed to new sentence structures). MLC still used only standard transformer components but, to handle longer sequences, added modularity in how the study examples were processed, as the ‘Machine learning benchmarks’ section of the Methods.
For each taxonomy, we provide detailed descriptions of the representative methods, summarize the corresponding characteristics, and give a new understanding of neural-symbolic learning systems. Symbolic AI’s adherents say it more closely follows the logic of biological intelligence because it analyzes symbols, not just data, to arrive at more intuitive, knowledge-based conclusions. It’s most commonly used in linguistics models such as natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU), but it is quickly finding its way into ML and other types of AI where it can bring much-needed visibility into algorithmic processes.
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